Nano- and microscale iron for Fe-fortification in Spinacia oleracea

The effectiveness of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI) and Microscale Zero-Valent Iron (MZVI) in fortifying spinach (Spinacia oleracea) with iron was examined. The changes in uptake of some macro-and microelements essential for plants and humans were also investigated in the presence of NZVI and MZVI.

Spinach was grown hydroponically until maturity using three doses of iron (11, 55, 110 mg/L) using NZVI, MZVI, and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). Spinach produced most biomass when exposed to 55 mg/L NZVI and 110 mg/L MZVI. With the application of 55 mg/L NZVI, the biomass increase in the edible part (the aboveground biomass) was ~ 1.10-fold compared to 110 mg/L MZVI, and ~ 1.57-fold compared to 55 mg/L FeSO4 treatments.

There was a 1.15-fold increase in iron content in spinach treated with 55 mg/L NZVI compared to 110 mg/L MZVI and a 1.70-fold increase was seen with 55 mg/L NZVI compared to 55 mg/L FeSO4. NZVI and MZVI also enhanced the plant uptake of some macronutrients (P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Mn, Cu, B). Both NZVI and MZVI have the potential for use as nutrient fortifiers in crops.

Read the complete research at

Hossain, Mohammad Enayet & Bezbaruah, Achintya. (2021). Nano- and microscale iron for Fe fortification in Spinacia oleracea. Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering. 6. 10.1007/s41204-021-00132-1. 

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