This study aimed to explore and evaluate new aquaponics system designs in Jakarta, Indonesia, in terms of water and nutrient efficiency, and/or profitability. In total, one brackish water system with barramundi and tomato (BW) and three freshwater systems with Nile tilapia, rice, and duckweed (FW + DW), Nile tilapia and rice (FW − DW), and Nile tilapia and tomato (FW-tomato) were investigated using dynamic mathematical models.
The results showed an increase of N, P, and water use efficiency by 10%, 18%, and 31%, respectively, in FW-tomato compare to FW − DW. Meanwhile, FW + DW only slightly increased the efficiency but worsened the already negative net present value (NPV) of FW − DW due to the high land prices. The BW system had similar water and nutrient efficiency to FW-tomato, but lower NPV. Profit of the BW and FW-tomato becomes comparable if the hydroponic area in the BW system can be expanded by 35%, or the selling price of tomato or fish in the BW can be increased by 20%.
Given the expected growth of both the production of tomatoes and aquaculture in Indonesia, there is potential for further introduction of aquaponics systems in Indonesia.
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Tarigan, Nurhayati & Goddek, Simon & Keesman, Karel. (2021). Explorative Study of Aquaponics Systems in Indonesia. Sustainability. 13. 12685. 10.3390/su132212685.