As the world’s population is increasing exponentially, human diets have changed to less healthy foods resulting in detrimental health complications. Increasing vegetable intake by both rural and urban dwellers can help address this issue. However, these communities often face the challenge of limited vegetable supply and accessibility.

More so, open-field vegetable production cannot supply all the vegetable needs because biotic and abiotic stress factors often hinder production. Alternative approaches, such as vegetable production in greenhouses, indoor farms, high tunnels, and screen houses, can help fill the gap in the supply chain. These alternative production methods provide opportunities to use fewer resources such as land space, pesticides, and water. They also make possible the control of production factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide, as well as the extension of the growing season. Some of these production systems also make the supply and distribution of nutrients to crops easier and more uniform to enhance crop growth and yield.

This paper reviews these alternative vegetable production approaches, which include hydroponics, aeroponics, aquaponics, and soilless mixes, to reveal the need for exploring them further to increase crop production. The paper also discusses facilities used, plant growth factors, and current challenges, including energy costs and prospects.

Read the complete research at www.mdpi.com.

Ampim, P.A.Y.; Obeng, E.; Olvera-Gonzalez, E. Indoor Vegetable Production: An Alternative Approach to Increasing Cultivation. Plants 2022, 11, 2843. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212843