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Biofloc application using aquaponics and vertical aquaculture technology in aquaculture: review

Some aspects of traditional aquaculture have negative impacts on the aquatic environment, leading to pollution and disease outbreaks in farmed organisms. Biofloc technology (BFT) is a closed aquaculture system that utilizes specific microbial communities to remove ammonia emitted from aquaculture organisms or adds carbon to the aquaculture system to improve water quality. BFT has benefits, such as increasing production, improving water quality, and reducing disease spread and pollution without the need for water exchange.

However, there are disadvantages, such as rapid changes in water quality due to the accumulation of dissolved nutrients and total suspended soils (TSS) and the requirement for expensive aeration equipment to maintain dissolved oxygen. BFT can be enhanced in value and efficiency by combining it with other aquaculture technologies, such as aquaponics and vertical aquaculture, to overcome the disadvantages.

The integration of biofloc with technologies from the fourth industrial revolution holds potential for further development, while aquaponics and vertical farming can eliminate geographical limitations and accelerate the urbanization of aquaculture. The integration of aquaponics and vertical aquaculture with BFT has the potential for development, accelerating the urbanization of aquaculture and removing geographic limitations.

Yu, Y.-B.; Choi, J.-H.; Lee, J.-H.; Jo, A.-H.; Han, S.W.; Han, S.-H.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, C.Y.; Kang, J.-C.; Min, E.; et al. Biofloc Application Using Aquaponics and Vertical Aquaculture Technology in Aquaculture: Review. Fishes 2023, 8, 543.

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